Advanced proficiency level: 3rd Grade

 

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Video clip #199


Teacher Interview

Overall rating & analysis

Overall rating: Three AP ratings equal an overall AP rating.

Beginning

Advanced

Exemplary

Strand 1: The teacher’s selection of extrinsic reinforcements.

Chooses a small set of sound reinforcements for all situations

Chooses a variety of appealing reinforcements to reach a range of students, based on an understanding of students and depending on the situation

Chooses reinforcements based on the needs of individual students and situations

Strand 2: The scale (moving from generic and absolute to individualized and relative) the teacher uses to reinforce achievement.

Reinforcement system recognizes basic academic effort (e.g., class participation, homework completion, etc.) and mastery of a well-defined absolute bar

Reinforcement system recognizes significant academic effort (e.g., studying hard and making incremental gains) and mastery of a well-defined absolute bar

Reinforcement system recognizes effort in proportion to students? individual accomplishments

Strand 3: The strategic timing and consistency with which the teacher reinforces students’ efforts.

Consistently provides reinforcement at regular intervals and sometimes conveys the meaning of the reinforcements as a celebration of progress toward the goal

Provides reinforcements appropriately and flexibly so that they are delivered only at purposeful intervals, and almost always conveys the meaning of the reinforcements as a celebration of progress toward the goal to maximize impact and lead to intrinsic motivation

Provides reinforcements appropriately and flexibly so that they are only delivered as often as necessary to supplement students? intrinsic motivation, always conveys the meaning of the reinforcements as a celebration of progress toward the goal, and teaches students how to reinforce their own performance


Analysis: Why did the teacher receive these ratings?

Rating: APStrand 1: The teacher’s selection of extrinsic reinforcements.

Why AP?

  • The teacher has "a variety of appealing reinforcements" including: Star Student of the Week, Dazzling Dollars, Special Star Student of the Week, McDonald's 'Mobile, Reading Racers Board, flexible rewards for students who achieve their 9 week goals including goal parties, praise to families, and verbal recognition. Students' cheering and excitement indicate that reinforcements are "appealing" and work to excite and motivate students.
  • In addition, the teacher chooses reinforcements "based on an understanding of students and depending on the situation." Although the teacher has many strategies that she uses for all students, she individualizes several strategies to maximize their impact on each individual student. For example, students are allowed to use the "Dazzling Dollars" to "purchase" the rewards they most want.

Why not E?

  • There is insufficient evidence that the teacher "chooses reinforcement strategies based on the needs of individual students and situations." Although the teacher allows students to select reinforcements that most appeal to them with the Dazzling Dollars, her system is largely established for the whole class and there is no evidence that she has tailored reinforcement strategies to motivate students who are more reluctant to exert academic effort.

Rating: APStrand 2: The scale (moving from generic and absolute to individualized and relative) the teacher uses to reinforce achievement.

Why AP?

  • One of the teacher’s reinforcement systems recognizes "mastery of a well-defined absolute bar," i.e., Star Student of the Week and Dazzling Dollars which recognizes students who earn 100 points or more for academic effort.
  • The teacher also has several systems that recognize "significant academic effort (e.g., studying hard and making incremental gains)": reading racers publicly tracks the number of leveled books students have read, the teacher verbally praises students’ efforts during meetings with parents/guardians where they reflect on students’ academic progress and set new 9-week goals, and the flexible rewards given to students for achieving their 9-week goals including goal-parties recognize students for the relative growth they've made over 9-weeks.
  • Note: the teacher also has systems that recognize "basic academic effort" such as daily verbal praise to students and their families recognizing hard work. (i.e., "A lot of these systems are part of small, in-the-moment, daily interactions. For example, I often take a minute to recognize excellence from the day. Some of those shout-outs are about behavior but that mixes into hard work and achievement too. Probably most important though, I am always on the look out for hard work. Maybe half a dozen times a day, I lean over and offer praise to a student who is giving great effort. Then, during class transitions when it isn't too disruptive to learning, I point out those students publicly and we do the "work hard" chant. As I already said, I'm in frequent contact with students’ family and I make notes to myself about the moments of strong effort that I want to be sure and share with their family members.")

Why not E?

  • There is no evidence that the teacher’s system "recognizes effort in proportion to students’ individual accomplishments." In general, the size of teacher’s reinforcements are fixed for the whole class and she does not give evidence of an incidence when she tailored the size of a students’ reinforcement to match the students’ level of personal achievement.

Rating: APStrand 3: The strategic timing and consistency with which the teacher reinforces students’ efforts.

Why AP?

  • The teacher "provides reinforcements appropriately.so that they are delivered only at purposeful intervals." As necessary, she gives students verbal praise. At the end of each week, students are publicly recognized as Star Students and one student is selected as a Special Star Student who gets ice cream at McDonald's. Other prizes like goal parties are given to students every 9 weeks for achieving unit goals. This is a highly purposeful system whose timing and rewards are selected to "maximize impact."
  • In addition, the teacher "provides reinforcements.flexibly so that they are delivered only at purposeful intervals" as the year progresses, the teacher lessens the frequency and size of reinforcement as students begin to build their own intrinsic motivation, ensuring that she reinforces "only as often as necessary to maximize impact" As the year goes on, the teacher lessens the size of the rewards for students who achieve their 9-week goals and she lessens the frequency of her informal rewards that recognize basic academic effort. (i.e., "It actually gets a lot easier as the year progresses because I start to wean the students off so much extrinsic motivation. At the beginning of the year, I use extrinsic motivation as a way to get them invested and enthusiastic very quickly. However, once they put forth the effort, they start to see the more important benefits of their hard work. They realize that they can achieve by working hard; they start to feel like they have more influence over the outcomes in their lives. I start to use the extrinsic systems less and less as they start to feel more and more proud of themselves based on the natural outcome of their effort, not based on the tangible reinforcement that they receive.")
  • The teacher "almost always conveys the meaning of the reinforcements as a celebration of progress toward the goal." In the video, the teacher is explicit about all the reasons Kearnisha is receiving the reinforcement including all the hard work she did to achieve her goals. In addition, the context reveals that the teacher always tries to give students these messages whenever she provides an extrinsic reward (i.e., "I think that the most important thing, when giving students extrinsic rewards, is to use them as opportunities to reinforce students effort by making really explicit connections to all the things they did that led to the reward. Every time I give students any sort of prize for their hard work and achievement, I remind them of all the things they did. This is what starts to build their intrinsic motivation.")

Why not E?

  • Some of the teachers' reinforcement systems such as Star Student are on fixed intervals therefore the teacher’s reinforcements are not "only delivered as often as necessary to supplement students’ intrinsic motivation." There may be times when the teacher is providing external prizes that are unnecessary to keep students motivated and working hard.
  • Note: the video has some exemplary evidence that the teacher "teaches students how to reinforce.each others' performance" as students are eagerly cheering for their classmate, Lyndsay, hoping that she will receive the reinforcement.